Abnormalities Constituents of urine - labsstudies

Abnormalities Constituents of urine

Abnormalities Constituents of urine

About Urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many other animals. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder. Urination results in urine being excreted from the body through the urethra.

Urine have normal constituents of large amount of water 96% , urea 2% and others like Ammonia, Potassium, Sodium etc.

In determining whether pathological conditions exist through urine analysis, it is necessary to perform both physical and chemical tests. Physical tests that are available, only appearance of the urine will be observed Example color of urine Pale yellow, Cloudy , Blood stained urine and colorless.

The chemical tests performed in Urinalysis is for  examine pH, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, Nitrate, Glucose , Specific Gravity and Urobilinogen.

The significance of each abnormality will accompany with the specific test.

For checking Abnormalities constituents of urine  is by the use of Urine Tests Strip, This  is a procedure carried out in the Laboratory.

Abnormalities Constituents of urine

Since this procedure is frequently used as a primary screening technique it is important that laboratory have a knowledge of the meaning of the test results and what constitute abnormal readings.

Correct interpretation and reporting of the results may not only lead to an earlier diagnosis and hence treatment for the patient but also to a financial saving, since it may obviate the need for further analysis of the urine in the laboratory.

Observation of the urine is a comparatively straightforward but nonetheless important activity. The exact nature and the range of substances which can be detected using test strips vary from manufacturer. This section will give an outline of the substances most commonly tested for, and how their presence in urine may be interpreted.

It is important to stress that accurate testing using this method relies on following the manufacturers’ instructions particularly in relation to reading the results at specific times which may be necessary for quantitative analysis . Fresh urine should always be used for the test.

 in some cases contamination of the specimen with other secretions produced by the genitourinary tract may interfere the Results. This is most common in men where there may be residual seminal fluid in the urinary tract which is excreted on urination.

Abnormalities Constituents of urine

The below are Abnormalities Constituents of urine, as  when you seen them in the Urine it show the Pathological conditions in your Kidney.

1. Leukocytes

These will be found in the urine of patients who are suffering from inflammatory conditions of the urinary tract such as cystitis and urethritis and  may not be accompanied by bacteriuria. In the absence of bacteriuria other causes should be investigated since the presence of leukocytes can always be considered to be abnormal.

In women particular care must be taken to ensure that the specimen has not been contaminated by vaginal secretions which will lead to a false positive reading.

2. Nitrites

The presence of nitrites in the urine can be detected by some of the test sticks available on the market. This is a particularly useful test since a positive result is indicative of bacterial activity in the urine and hence urinary tract infection.

An early morning urine specimen is the ideal sample for this test but failing this urine which has been in the bladder for at least four hours may be used.

3. Protein

The presence of protein in the urine can always be considered to be abnormal, although it may result from non-pathological sources. These include orthostatic proteinuria and proteinuria following physical exertion. The commonest pathological cause is upper urinary tract infection.

4. Glucose

Classically the presence of glucose in the urine is considered to be indicative of diabetes mellitus and is frequently the first indication which is given of the condition when routine urinalysis is performed.

There are various causes , and glucose may be found in the urine following a meal particularly rich in carbohydrates, during pregnancy, in those with a low renal threshold for glucose and in certain individuals with renal damage.

5. Ketones

Ketone bodies they are sometimes referred to, are produced as a result of fat metabolism. This occurs primarily in two situations.

The first is when there is insufficient glucose within the body to provide the energy required for normal metabolie processes to take place.

and second is Starvation, weight reducing diets and cases of severe vomiting will cause this .

In the absence of any of these ketonuria is indicative of a disturbed glucose metabolism as occurs in diabetes mellitus.

The presence of ketones in this group of patients should always be treated as significant, particularly if glucose is also present, since high levels of ketones in the blood lead to ketoacidosis, coma and the potential for central nervous system damage.

6. Blood

The majority of test strips now available differentiate between haematuria, the presence of intact red blood cells, and haemoglobinuria, the presence of free haemoglobin resulting from the breakdown of red blood cells.

Haematuria can be further divided into gross haematuria, where the urine is discoloured by the presence of blood, and microhaematuria, where the urine appears normal but red blood cells can be detected by microscopy or chemical tests . Haematuria may be indicative of a number of conditions including the following:

  • urinary tract infection
  • trauma
  • renal or bladder calculi
  • tumours of the urinary tract
  • glomerulo- and pyelonephritis
  • hypertension.

The presence of haemoglobinuria may be the result of severe haemolytic anaemia, poisoning, bums, systemic infections and physical exertion.

In some circumstances both haematuria and haemoglobinuria may be detected. This may be the result of haemolysis taking place in the specimen and the test should be repeated using a fresh sample.

7. Urobilinogen

This is produced from bilirubin in the gut as a result of bacterial action. Under normal circumstances all urobilinogen that is produced is reabsorbed and broken down by the liver.

If excessive urobilinogen is produced as occurs in the case of increased haemolysis, infection of the biliary tract and certain gastrointestinal conditions (e.g. severe constipation leading to a much decreased transit time) the liver may be unable to metabolize the higher blood levels and it is then excreted in the urine.

The other situation in which this can occur is acute or chronic inflammation of the liver resulting from infection or other conditions such as cirrhosis or carcinoma.

8. Bilirubin

This is an abnormal constituent of urine and is only found in cases where the serum bilirubin levels are grossly elevated.

This can occur in cases of acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and biliary obstruction. It is not present in cases of prehepatic jaundice.

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